爱德华·肯尼斯·爱灵顿(英语:Edward Kennedy Ellington,1899年4月29日-1974年5月24日),昵称艾灵顿公爵(Duke Ellington),生于美国华盛顿特区,作曲家、钢琴家以及爵士乐队首席领班。公爵(Duke)是他童年朋友给他起的绰号,他成名后,人们还是这样称呼他。   艾林顿公爵在世时已被视为对于爵士音乐极富影响力的人,甚至可以说对美国音乐极富影响力。他的音乐涉及许多领域,包括蓝调、福音音乐、电影配乐、流行音乐和古典音乐。公爵的名声在死后更加显著,包括获得普立兹奖。他花了人生超过五十年的时间领导他的管弦乐团、写无数的歌曲、为电影制作配乐和进行多次世界巡回。   艾林顿生于一个黑人中产阶级家庭,18岁时为酒吧、夜总会中演奏拉格泰姆的钢琴手,1923年组织乐队赴纽约发展,1927年在哈莱姆区的棉花俱乐部演出成功,其意在展现非洲原始特色的“丛林风格”深受欢迎。   Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974) was an American composer, pianist, and bandleader of a jazz orchestra, which he led from 1923 until his death in a career spanning over fifty years.   Born in Washington, D.C., Ellington was based in New York City from the mid-1920s onward, and gained a national profile through his orchestra's appearances at the Cotton Club in Harlem. In the 1930s, his orchestra toured in Europe. Though widely considered to have been a pivotal figure in the history of jazz, Ellington embraced the phrase "beyond category" as a liberating principle, and referred to his music as part of the more general category of American Music, rather than to a musical genre such as jazz.   Some of the musicians who were members of Ellington's orchestra, such as saxophonist Johnny Hodges, are considered to be among the best players in jazz. Ellington melded them into the best-known orchestral unit in the history of jazz. Some members stayed with the orchestra for several decades. A master at writing miniatures for the three-minute 78 rpm recording format, Ellington often composed specifically to feature the style and skills of his individual musicians.   Often collaborating with others, Ellington wrote more than one thousand compositions; his extensive body of work is the largest recorded personal jazz legacy, with many of his works having become standards. Ellington also recorded songs written by his bandsmen, for example Juan Tizol's "Caravan", and "Perdido", which brought a Spanish tinge to big band jazz. After 1941, Ellington collaborated with composer-arranger-pianist Billy Strayhorn, whom he called his writing and arranging companion. With Strayhorn, he composed many extended compositions, or suites, as well as additional short pieces. Following an appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival, in July 1956, Ellington and his orchestra enjoyed a major career revival and embarked on world tours. Ellington recorded for most American record companies of his era, performed in several films, scoring several, and composed stage musicals.   Due to his inventive use of the orchestra, or big band, and thanks to his eloquence and charisma, Ellington is generally considered to have elevated the perception of jazz to an art form on a par with other more traditional musical genres. His reputation continued to rise after he died, and he was awarded a special posthumous Pulitzer Prize for music in 1999.
  爱德华·肯尼斯·爱灵顿(英语:Edward Kennedy Ellington,1899年4月29日-1974年5月24日),昵称艾灵顿公爵(Duke Ellington),生于美国华盛顿特区,作曲家、钢琴家以及爵士乐队首席领班。公爵(Duke)是他童年朋友给他起的绰号,他成名后,人们还是这样称呼他。   艾林顿公爵在世时已被视为对于爵士音乐极富影响力的人,甚至可以说对美国音乐极富影响力。他的音乐涉及许多领域,包括蓝调、福音音乐、电影配乐、流行音乐和古典音乐。公爵的名声在死后更加显著,包括获得普立兹奖。他花了人生超过五十年的时间领导他的管弦乐团、写无数的歌曲、为电影制作配乐和进行多次世界巡回。   艾林顿生于一个黑人中产阶级家庭,18岁时为酒吧、夜总会中演奏拉格泰姆的钢琴手,1923年组织乐队赴纽约发展,1927年在哈莱姆区的棉花俱乐部演出成功,其意在展现非洲原始特色的“丛林风格”深受欢迎。   Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974) was an American composer, pianist, and bandleader of a jazz orchestra, which he led from 1923 until his death in a career spanning over fifty years.   Born in Washington, D.C., Ellington was based in New York City from the mid-1920s onward, and gained a national profile through his orchestra's appearances at the Cotton Club in Harlem. In the 1930s, his orchestra toured in Europe. Though widely considered to have been a pivotal figure in the history of jazz, Ellington embraced the phrase "beyond category" as a liberating principle, and referred to his music as part of the more general category of American Music, rather than to a musical genre such as jazz.   Some of the musicians who were members of Ellington's orchestra, such as saxophonist Johnny Hodges, are considered to be among the best players in jazz. Ellington melded them into the best-known orchestral unit in the history of jazz. Some members stayed with the orchestra for several decades. A master at writing miniatures for the three-minute 78 rpm recording format, Ellington often composed specifically to feature the style and skills of his individual musicians.   Often collaborating with others, Ellington wrote more than one thousand compositions; his extensive body of work is the largest recorded personal jazz legacy, with many of his works having become standards. Ellington also recorded songs written by his bandsmen, for example Juan Tizol's "Caravan", and "Perdido", which brought a Spanish tinge to big band jazz. After 1941, Ellington collaborated with composer-arranger-pianist Billy Strayhorn, whom he called his writing and arranging companion. With Strayhorn, he composed many extended compositions, or suites, as well as additional short pieces. Following an appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival, in July 1956, Ellington and his orchestra enjoyed a major career revival and embarked on world tours. Ellington recorded for most American record companies of his era, performed in several films, scoring several, and composed stage musicals.   Due to his inventive use of the orchestra, or big band, and thanks to his eloquence and charisma, Ellington is generally considered to have elevated the perception of jazz to an art form on a par with other more traditional musical genres. His reputation continued to rise after he died, and he was awarded a special posthumous Pulitzer Prize for music in 1999.
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